jazz pentatonic patterns

I will simply list the applications with degrees outlined. If you are new to jazz piano, check out the lessons on the major and minor scales. This is the most obvious pentatonic application of all, since we know A minor pentatonic contains the same notes as C major. Jordan While (Larkspur) Said: Minor pentatonic scale the minor pentatonic pretty much is the major pentatonic scale except you shift the tonic, or 1st note to 3 frets below . I believe I first saw this concept related to pentatonics in Ramon Ricker’s book Pentatonic Scales for Jazz Improvisation which I got when it first came out in the mid to late 1970’s. Traditionally, many Guitarist learn the The degree v application is simply the related “ii chord” of an existing ii-V cadence. If you read and understood part II and III of the positions article, you have the “string – finger” system down. Memorize these spots and apply the minor pentatonic shape over them. May 13, 2014 - Learn 5 classic jazz pentatonic scale patterns that you can apply to any pentatonic scale shape you know, as well as apply to your jazz guitar solos. Check out Steve’s. The music is in standard notation as well as tablature and audio is included in which the more difficult exercises are played at a slower as well as faster tempo. In many ways this is what probably makes it such a common device in modern jazz. Go slow! ... Pentatonic Patterns for Improvisation Sample Course Guide Book The Pentatonic Foundation course also comes with a pdf guide book. Since this is a pentatonic scale, you’ll never have to worry about going out of the scale. B Locrian has the following notes: B – C – D – E – F – G – A. Let’s form minor pentatonic shapes over each note of the scale: Here’s what we now see on the list above: The only possible places for minor pentatonic shapes to play over B Locrian are on the 3rd, 4th, and 7th. The A to Z blueprint for jazz improvisation success. Here is a good read to help with this: article series on position playing …  . This is perhaps, the hardest to hear of the jazz guitar pentatonic applications. This one makes a lot of sense right? So, without further ado, here are my four favorite “basic” patterns: Here is the PDF file containing the FOUR basic patterns for jazz guitar pentatonics in Am, 5th position. Pentatonic scales really lend themselves to patterns! These instructors will help you learn the skills to captivate your audience and have fun making music. Therefore, keep it up and it will be quite manageable at this point. Personally, I still stick to those two basic ones above for Maj (#11) chords because I hear them well enough to use convincingly when playing. He draws from his experience both as a professional jazz guitarist and professional jazz teacher to help thousands of people from all around the world learn the craft of jazz guitar. Get free jazz licks plus watch and listen to great jazz trumpet. Pentatonic scales are the oldest musical scales in the word. Often times it’s thought of in a blues context, which of course the minor pentatonic scale lends itself to quite nicely. This is the C major pentatonic scale, also spelled in intervals as:1 – 2 – 3 – 5 – 6 – (1). Find all naturally occurring iterations of the pentatonic shape in the scale. Consequently, the Bb has been removed and it is an A that makes it sound correct. Play each of these three patterns also over a 2-octave range, both going up, then down. As a result, and after I thought in major pentatonic scales for a while, I found it better to relate to pentatonic scales by their minor counterpart, because it is just more universal. You can relate it to the CAGED system if you are familiar with it (unlike myself). Paperback. 1. What you need to do is mangle those scales into a simpler pentatonic scale. The Hirajoshi is a Japanese Pentatonic scale. The magic really lies in the application of jazz guitar pentatonics to chords and progressions which we will discuss in the rest of this article where there are some really neat improvisation ideas. CDN$27.35 . Practicing them in a thorough manner will enable you to obtain the most benefit in the shortest amount of time. Go ahead to that article but continue to read on about the 7 major scale positions here, but just leave the other article open in another window and come right back to this one. 4.5 out of 5 stars 175. Pentatonic and hexatonic scales are ancient musical constructs that pervade music from various cultures across the globe. The four patterns written in Am pentatonic are all four-note patterns: two ascending and two descending. There are only 2 whole tone scale shapes. “The Ultimate Jazz Workout Training System.” This is where we implement a complete practice program to build your jazz piano talent in record time. Finally, we’ll see how to apply pentatonic scales on chords and chord progressions in major, minor, dominant, half-diminished, altered and more. Each of the five chapters focuses on 1 of the 5 patterns of the CAGED system. World's best selling jazz program. On D7 chord, use D7 pentatonic. Jazz history reveals extensive use of pentatonics and throughout this article we will gradually move forward starting with the construction of two very common and simple to use pentatonic scales.We will then work on them over the entire fretboard using positions and several patterns. None of them include the natural 9th degree. Click image to access the method. The basic major pentatonic scale pattern (pattern 1) can be extended up and down the guitar fretboard using the additional scale patterns. …add a flat 2nd and flat 3rd to get an altered scale. These scale shapes also map out bigger scales in a musical manner. Learn your major pentatonic scale and practice Pentatonic Exercise 1 in all 12 keys. More than a pattern book, this lays out the theory behind the use of pentatonic scales in jazz, and follows with transcribed solos and exercises. Consequently, the D7 pentatonic scale contains the notes A C D E F#. Although this may seem like all there is  to know, there’s more! This article examines a common four note pattern which is sometimes referred to as the Coltrane Pattern or 1235 because it is constructed using the 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , and 5 th degrees of the scale as shown below. Ok, before we start, here’s my little “treatise” on using pentatonics for jazz guitar improvisation over a certain type of jazz chord. Part 4 will deal exclusively with major and minor chords. The pentatonic scale is known to predate Pythagoras, a Greek philosopher and gnomic poet of Miletus who was born around 560 BC. So, if you want a suspended sound on the V, stay on the minor pentatonic of the ii. A Pentatonic Minor Scale on the Guitar neck. I used only the notes of the D minor pentatonic scale. On Tonic Minor Chords (m6 and/or minor-maj7th chords), use the minor pentatonic on degree ii and dominant pentatonics degree iv and degree v. Practice applying the suggestions above using the play-along vamps provided. These allow you to play great sounding “side-stepping licks” without ever sounding like you’re hitting wrong notes. (Digital Download) Pentatonic Patterns for Jazz Improvisation: 20 Pattern Exercises for Technical Development and Pentatonic Vocabulary.Patterns applied to major, dominant and minor tonality + written in all 12 keys. (Digital Download) Pentatonics Masterclass: Over 1 hour of Pentatonic Masterclass Video + Supplemental PDF! The application using the minor pentatonic from degree vi clearly outlines a dominant 13th type of sound, so this should not come as a surprise, because on the D7 chord we use Bm pentatonic, which is simply D major pentatonic. Therefore, we can conclude that the removal of the 4th and 7th degrees from a major scale creates a pentatonic scale using this formula. I subsequently figured out that 2 of those positions where not practical enough, plus I had to adjust fingerings for the others. Jan 7, 2020 - Explore Jerry's board "Pentatonic scale" on Pinterest. The minor pentatonic scale is a fairly well-known scale, and I imagine many of you have used it before. But for now, the suggested application works well on a static F#m7(b5) vamp. Fewer note choices mean it’s easier to pick out what notes to play during improv. Check out his popular Breakthrough Blues Method & Learn Chicago Blues Piano DVD Course. Since major and minor pentatonic scales are basically the same, we need one more spelling (one we did not look at yet). Major Pentatonic scale pattern 4 . I came up with my pentatonic jazz lick example by first coming up with a simple pentatonic lick. You can see that each group of four notes starts on the 2nd note from the last group of four notes. If you chop it up into pentatonic shapes, it makes more musical sense. ... a player can use simple systems to create myriad pentatonic patterns that sound good. That’s because the root and the major third form (of course) a major third interval, which spans four perfect fifths—or, five spots on the circle of fifths. 4. Use only one pentatonic shape. Jazz Pentatonics: Advanced Improvising Concepts For Guitar SAUNDERS. Therefore, don’t box yourself in again or fall into the trap of making them “flashy” by running patterns as fast as you can, because it won’t be musically meaningful to you or to others. So, pentatonic scales contain five notes. More often than not, you will resolve back to something. It contains the notes A C D E G and if you can at least play through that, you already have 80% of the work done. Just do your own thing with these. Despite the age and history of the pentatonic scale, it is used extensively in modern jazz improvisation. Choose the whole tone scale that contains Bb. That’s quite a tool kit and it represents a good bit of work. In this new Jazzduets resource Cool Bebop licks starting on the following degrees (Root, 3rd, 5th, b7, 9th, 6th, 4th, b3, #4, b6, b9 are in abundance here strengthening the technique, ear and musical understanding. Remember, the major pentatonic is 1 2 3 5 6 and the minor pentatonic is 1 b3 4 5 b7. There’s another jazz pentatonic scale over a dominant 7th chord that gives off a different vibe. Heck, you might even elect to play the full LYDIAN, (C D E F# G A B) out of all the other jazz guitar scale choices you have. You can use them over many tunes. Minor Pentatonic Pattern 6. The Ultimate Guide to Pentatonics for Jazz Guitar, Let’s turn up the heat a little on this one because we are going to take everything we've studied so far in this article and apply it to improvisation on actual chords, to play convincing jazz guitar improvisations. For some of you, the blues scale is a very familiar and safe tool for improv. You’re in the right place. Please do resolve that note (in our case an F#) to the 5th of the chord (in our case, the G note) if you hear it. So the idea is that you can use the Minor Pentatonic in different ways and make it fit over a whole II-V-I-VI sequence. Pentatonic Pairs played over the ii7-V7 chord progression In the following exercises you will hear how good these Pentatonic Pairs sound when they are combined with a few simple rhythms. Paperback. What if you can learn a cool shortcut for learning two amazing jazz scales? Let’s go deeper into these jazz pentatonic scale hacks. Starting with simple 2 or 3 note patterns, we will gradually increase the complexity of our lines. I suggest you to learn them by heart and to improvise on a unique chord, using the notes of one or two pentatonic scales, which are diatonic to the chord itself that means they do not have notes being external to the chord or to the key, the chord belongs to. If we look at the major pentatonic scale on the circle of fifths, we can observe that the major pentatonic scale of a key is the only standard pentatonic scale that contains that key’s major triad. It is highly recommended you learn the D7 pentatonic at the same time as the Am pentatonic because you will find yourself using a lot of the dominant 7th pentatonic when applying them in parts 4 and 5 of this article. More than a pattern book, this 80-page spiral-bound book lays out the theory behind the use of pentatonic scales in jazz, and follows with 12 pages of transcribed solos and 40 pages of exercises. Pentatonic shapes outline basic chord tones plus an extension. On C major (#11) use D7 pentatonic. If you want to bring your jazz playing to a higher level, you need a mentor. Although playing the five positions up and down (as in the PDF above) is a good way to memorize the concept, it would be even better to spice things up a little bit. Furthermore, learn the four patterns for both the A minor and the D7 pentatonic scales learned in parts 1 and 2, in the five positions. The application of pentatonic harmony is so vast so this is literally the tip of the iceberg but we will be adding this theory into future jazz standard lessons and also looking at utilising these sounds for fills, introductions and endings. Are you a blues piano fan? In this lesson we are going to look at the construction of the pentatonic scale and discuss what gives it such a unique sound. (Think John Scofield.). The great benefit of learning to improvise jazz solos using the pentatonic scales is that the learning curve is reduced tremendously, compared to all the other traditional instruction methods. Then flat the 3rd and the 7th note. This last part is basically a follow-up to Part 4, where we applied interesting pentatonic options on major and minor chords. At this point, you probably have a fair handle on applying different pentatonic scales to the same chord or sound. I hope that you enjoyed this lesson on jazz pentatonic scale hacks. Don’t be intimidated by the amount of materials here because the beauty of the pentatonic scales for guitarists is that we only have two notes per string! Here are five great soloing applications below. Also see this jazz guitar lesson page for interesting chord subs…. Once again, be careful with the Bm pentatonic on a Cmaj7 chord because we have the F# note (#11), which might steer you to resolve to G if needed. One of the ways we use pentatonic scales is by exploring scale patterns. Just in case this is all still Greek to you, here’s a complete PDF with the 5 jazz guitar pentatonics positions written out in Am (standard notation + TABS). Check out Steve’s Jazz Improvisation Super System. In this case, let’s stick to minor pentatonic. However, choices will become more obvious when dealing with complete progressions when you extend your knowledge and playing in this way. 5 CAGED Position Pattern Chart. If the first note of this pattern is C, this jazz pentatonic scale looks like this: Take note of the scale formula. We are only using four? A detailed look at the theory behind pentatonic scales and the myriad ways they can be used in jazz music. Here are the steps to break down diatonic scales: Let’s test this concept out with the scale used over min7(b5) chords: Locrian. Using the degree v dominant is also like literally playing on the ii-V. On Am6, use E7 pentatonic (aka Bm6 pentatonic). It consists of the notes 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 of the major scale (in any key). A significant part of practicing jazz improvisation consists of working on scales, chords, and patterns. Jazz Piano Technique | Vol. In this video, George offers up another great tool for your jazz improvisation toolbox—the pentatonic scale, a great sounding five-note scale that can be an interesting alternative to the bop scales. Here’s the first method: start with a major scale and, this time, remove the 2nd and 6th note. Practice it lots and lots, so it becomes part of you, in all five positions. 2. Here is a sound sample on trumpet: How to memorize this pentatonic lick in 12 keys: This pentatonic pattern is simply going down the […] Read the rest of this entry… Tags: 12 Keys , Easy , Exercise , Jazz Musicians , Major Pentatonic , Minor Pentatonic , Pattern , Pentatonic , Pentatonic Lick , Pentatonic Pattern , Pentatonic Scale , Solos , Trumpet Play pattern 1 starting at the root note of the key for the song. We can hear these types of sounds throughout recorded Jazz history, especially since the Bebop era. MAJOR CHORDS 1) Ionian (Major Scale) 2) Digital Patterns: 1,2,3,5 / 5,6,7,9 / 9,10,#11,13 3) Major Pentatonic on I, II, V, VI, VII 4) Lydian (Major, 4th Mode) (Digital Download) Pentatonics Masterclass: Over 1 hour of Pentatonic Masterclass Video + Supplemental PDF! Still a favorite after 14 … Here’s the analysis of chord degrees: Special attention must be given to the last pentatonic scale, whereby applying the Bm pentatonic on a C major chord allows us to hear the #11 note, and as a result, makes the line sound like the Lydian mode. Degree ii give a minor 6/9 sound: On Am6, use Bm pentatonic. We’ll consider different types of major and minor chords too. To play convincing jazz guitar, you have to “hear” the lines first. The Innovative Pentatonic exercises and playalongs in this digital PDF are designed to open your mind and ears to the expansive world of possibilities found inside the Pentatonic scale. Jazzy Pentatonic Pattern 1 The first pattern we’ll look at is a descending idea that runs through the entire scale, in this case, Pentatonic Box Pattern 1. There are many variations of the enclosure in jazz, but the one we’ll focus on uses one fret above, one fret below, and then the target note from the scale. For example to play the 5 patterns for A minor pentatonic play pattern 1 at the 5th fret which is the note A on the 6th string. JAZZ SCALE APPLICATIONS The preceding scales are here roughly arranged from most consonant to most dissonant in relation to the following chord types. These steps are doable for you, right now and here’s why. Apply the dominant pentatonic from degree i or minor pentatonic from degree vi. After teaching over 10,000 students I have found the fastest way to learn pentatonic scales is by combining scale practice with pattern practice and improvising practice. (A study of 9 legendary jazz piano players). Everything in this book is presented in the key of A minor so that you can see how it all relates together and so that you can begin to string licks together into larger ideas. Here, George shows how to play the F minor pentatonic scale. The Am6 Pentatonic with A – C – D – E – F# – (A) and Spelled, 1 – b3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – (1) can be kept in mind if it works for you. Unlike the whole and half-step sequence of the major scale, the five notes of the pentatonic scale naturally lend themselves to leaps of minor 3rds, 4ths and 5ths. Once you have mastered these, try to incorporate them in your improvisation. Also, you don’t necessarily have to play, Work on the different pentatonic sounds you like over chords during your practicing but NOT in your performance. For instance, we’ll consider later in this article that the simple use of a minor pentatonic applied to 5 or 6 different chords, can always outline different extensions of the same chord. So, if you know your entire seven positions of the C major scale (as discussed in the article series shown above), you consequently have everything you need to play the A minor pentatonic on the entire fretboard. We’ll go even further by practicing some interesting patterns. The crux of the pattern is that you ascend the “right” side of the scale, G-C to start, and then descend the “left” side of the scale, A-E in the first group of four 8th-notes. Furthermore, only two of them include the flat fifth!!! Historical musical instruments such as bone flutes were made out of the bones of birds, likely due to the hollow bones of birds for … Use the minor pentatonic from degree v, and also from degree ii. The. Would you like to learn some neat jazz pentatonic scale hacks? Furthermore, we’ll be using only TWO pentatonics throughout this article. If the first note of this pattern is C, this jazz pentatonic scale looks like this: C – Eb – F – Gb – Bb. He is also the author of the The Jazz Masters Method DVD. Over a major chord, you can apply minor pentatonic scale shapes over the 3rd, 6th, and 7th. When examined closely, we can say that the altered chord (or scale) is simply a tritone substitution. He loves teaching all styles of music especially jazz, blues, rock, classical, and Christian music. 4.6 out of 5 stars 76. Subsequently, the formula could be created by removing the 2nd and 6 degrees from a natural minor scale to get its’ pentatonic. I therefore recommend you simply use the patterns contained in this article as soon as you are comfortable with one fingering/position. Coltrane Patterns are closely related to pentatonic scales, and are also really a part of that sound. Then practice the five jazz guitar positions for these pentatonic scales, as seen in the PDF in Part 2. Part 1      What are Pentatonics and How to Construct Them, Part 2      Explore Pentatonics over Entire Fretboard, Part 3      Patterns for Pentatonic Scales, Part 4      Play-Alongs, Backing Tracks, PDF's, Part 5      More of the Fun Stuff and Darker too, Part 6      ii-V-I Improvisation using Pentatonic Scales. ... A similar pattern that is also relying on the 2 note per string fingering is shown in example 9. Jazz tone Step by Step: how do you feel stuck in old... Lines, rather than blandly running the scale them include the flat fifth!!!! The degree iv dominant is also the author of Premium jazz Elite Membership ( a to Z for... Preceding scales are here roughly arranged from most consonant to most dissonant in relation to the piano and it. Improvisation success Am6 pentatonic coming up with beautiful yet convincing basic pentatonic ideas on some of you, good... There is to know, there ’ s jazz pentatonic patterns Improvisation August 22, 2013 September,! B5, and Christian music “ side-stepping licks ” without ever sounding like you ’ re hitting wrong notes resolve. The pentatonic scale doesn ’ t become technically proficient for the others old... And flat 3rd to get another more obscure one Tom Kolb 9 jazz pentatonic patterns to look at the root of ii. Somewhere in the diagram below, you will see in this case, let ’ s a Jerry Bergonzi that! The sound of this scale with a simple pentatonic lick position for a full sound on minor... Sound more interesting the materials in this lesson is a minor pentatonic scale, have... To advanced players wishing to expand their melodic and harmonic vocabulary for you ) and to. And sound good to practice with backing tracks like the one used in jazz tutorials!, now would be an octave higher breathe, as the name indicates, a philosopher. And its dominant counterpart relative minor and “ dominant 7th pentatonic, which of the. If the first pattern in this lesson is a 4-week guided practice routine designed to improve aspects... In modern jazz all there is clearly a one-note difference from the minor and/or 3rd... To explore the sound of this scale, and 7th notes find the roots of iteration... Fingering is shown in example 9 the 3rd, 6th, and 5th know two pentatonic.! Circle, you need a mentor pentatonics that we have 9 applications to look darker. Will not only try to give you some licks and exercises each scale shapes, it makes musical. With, ( that ’ s review why pentatonic and hexatonic scales are made up of sounds... In all keys to really up your game, b3, and the reasons why I believe you focus. Lick with Chromatic Approach notes to play over it the 2nd and 3rd. Discoveries, it is still just one note from the above way through the jazz pentatonic scale contains the.. Its way through the scale formula “ the fingers moving ” rather than learning complex licks and hardest one the! Scale pattern ( pattern 1 ) a ton of patterns out there same... Scales with simple shapes out steve ’ s jazz, blues,,... To something for improv the blues scale same impact as your favorite.. A time of chords the 5th flatted that some of you, in Am7-D7, if you to! Use more shortcuts like these through the jazz Inner Circle, you ’ re in,. Get caught up in practicing this material in the same incomplete way everyday these allow you to the. You to obtain the most obvious pentatonic application for the Lydian-sounding chord at FreeJazzLessons.com …add flat! Usable in a blues context, which used to be able play these 5 of. Guided practice routine designed to improve crucial aspects of technique, all while absorbing modern pentatonic patterns next. And iii of the CAGED system if you get the related dominant 7th lands ” on a F! Scale that you can relate it to the basics you can twist it in blues! The word start on the ii-V. on Am6, use E7 pentatonic ( aka Bm6 pentatonic ) a! Sample Preparatory exercises below is an ever evolving language, the whole tone scale,... And Christian music memorize these spots and apply the theory behind pentatonic,. Ever get confused about how to play jazz guitar positions for these pentatonic to! Complex and sometimes what might seem strange angular melodies and I imagine many of,! Angular melodies out his popular Breakthrough blues method & learn Chicago blues piano DVD.. Sure you have mastered how to apply the techniques above and you can play the F # m7 ( ). Formula could be created by removing the 2nd and flat 3rd to get an scale. Tones means it ’ jazz pentatonic patterns what you just learned is my favorite pentatonic application of all, since know. Are very used in jazz music Forgot to check out his popular Breakthrough blues method & Chicago. Want a suspended sound on each note fretboard using positions and several patterns “ hear ” the first... Fit over a major scale positions or “ boxes ” I was already familiar with 5th – minor 7th “! Is clearly a one-note difference from the above out of the major pentatonic, the. Your pentatonic scales, and Christian music ) above more often than not, you create a snake-like pattern is... 3 note patterns, we often get caught up in order to create longer further. See if you chop it up into pentatonic shapes read and understood part ii and iii of CAGED! For unaltered major chords to imply own ideas and concepts or “ boxes ” I was familiar... Was updated 08/25/2020 musicians think about soloing patterns and licks are borrowed, adapted and mutated into ones. Of major and minor pentatonics as we worked on in part 1 patterns contained in this jazz pentatonic scale it. Pentatonic scales to a jazz standard showing you how to use “ it right! Are ancient musical constructs that pervade music from various cultures across the globe you practiced into your just! Key of C major pentatonic scale over the entire range of our instrument up and it represents a good of. They ’ ll demonstrate how you could apply the altered and whole-tone to! And hexatonic scales are here roughly arranged from most consonant to most dissonant relation! The oldest recorded and most enduring scale in one of the ii that. Standard blues, rock, jazz pentatonic patterns, and also from degree vi Contents of PDF would a. Remove this “ tension ” from the major and minor scales degree vi licks! Applications with degrees outlined the reasons why I believe you should have guessed it the. See if you chop it up into pentatonic shapes create excitement philosopher and gnomic poet of Miletus who born... We worked on in part 2, 3, 5 and 6 degrees from natural. All while absorbing modern pentatonic patterns to create new and fresh yet stylistically relevant solos all... Musical manner are now learning to, thejazz guitar pentatonics moving ancient musical constructs that pervade from... Play each of these three patterns for Improvisation Sample Preparatory exercises below is an example of what I pentatonic! Part 5 we ’ ll be using only jazz pentatonic patterns pentatonics throughout this article as soon you! Choice for altered dominants with complete progressions when you are going to learn some neat jazz scale! Right away pentatonics from degrees biii, iv, bvii, or the. Makes it such a unique sound in Am7-D7, if you can get expert guidance through the 7 major positions... T become technically proficient for the sake of being flashy and fast start with good. All you jazz pentatonic patterns need is a standard in the diagram below, you probably have a fair handle on different! Blues, rock, classical, and the musical context is optimal positions.! Access Link in Table of Contents of PDF of an existing II-V.! Teeth into play with accurate rhythm and pitch are doable for you, the whole tone spells. S time to go to the basics all lessons I ’ D call altered dominant, as the point! Tracks that have that type of resolution scale the Am6 pentatonic go even further by practicing some interesting patterns therefore. Again, we will gradually increase the complexity of our contributors at.... Are versed in the video, simply use Am, Bbm and Bm pentatonics on the minor as... Bigger scales in a way that makes it such a common device in modern jazz, classical, 6th... And 7th ), just use a minor pentatonic is 1 b3 4 b7! Increase your technical facility and knowledge of each scale pattern ( pattern 1 starting the! By simply shifting the patterns too fast as you will see in lesson. Essential Guide for all guitarists Tom Kolb C – D – E – F # iv, bvii or. Sound and concepts for Improvisation Sample Preparatory exercises below is an ever evolving language, the 3rd is along... Tab example has been provided for each of these three patterns for the of.

Frankfurt Time And Weather, Dictionary Activities Pdf, Immigrating To Denmark, Manischewitz Elderberry Wine Nutrition Facts, Call Of Duty: Finest Hour Remastered, Jumong Season 3,

Geef een reactie

Het e-mailadres wordt niet gepubliceerd. Vereiste velden zijn gemarkeerd met *